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Legal Suites - Regulatory Compliance Tools & Training
Last updated: May 23, 2018
Effective date: May 23, 2018
Legal Suites., Inc ("us", "we", or "our") operates the http://www.legalsuites.com/ website (the "Service").
This page informs you of our policies regarding the collection, use, and disclosure of personal data when you use our Service and the choices you have associated with that data.
Service is the https://www.legalsuites.com/ website operated by Legal Suites Inc.
Personal Data means data about a living individual who can be identified from those data (or from those and other information either in our possession or likely to come into our possession).
Usage Data is data collected automatically either generated by the use of the Service or from the Service infrastructure itself (for example, the duration of a page visit).
Cookies are small pieces of data stored on your device (computer or mobile device).
Data Controller means the natural or legal person who (either alone or jointly or in common with other persons) determines the purposes for which and the manner in which any personal information are, or are to be, processed.
Data Processors (or Service Providers)
Data Processor (or Service Provider) means any natural or legal person who processes the data on behalf of the Data Controller.
We may use the services of various Service Providers in order to process your data more effectively.
Data Subject (or User)
Data Subject is any living individual who is using our Service and is the subject of Personal Data.
Information Collection And Use
We collect several different types of information for various purposes to provide and improve our Service to you.
TYPES OF DATA COLLECTED
While using our Service, we may ask you to provide us with certain personally identifiable information that can be used to contact or identify you ("Personal Data"). Personally identifiable information may include, but is not limited to:
We may use your Personal Data to contact you with newsletters, marketing or promotional materials and other information that may be of interest to you. You may opt out of receiving any, or all, of these communications from us by following the unsubscribe link or instructions provided in any email we send.
We may receive Personally Identifiable Information when you provide information in response to a survey operated by us. This may include details about your location, your educational history, and your employment.
We may receive Personally Identifiable Information when you access or log-in to a third party site, e.g., LinkedIn or Twitter, from our Service. This may include the text and/or images of your Personally Identifiable Information available from the third party site.
We may also collect information how the Service is accessed and used ("Usage Data"). This Usage Data may include information such as your computer's Internet Protocol address (e.g. IP address), browser type, browser version, the pages of our Service that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, which ads you have seen or clicked on, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data. We may be able to determine from an IP address a user’s Internet Service Provider and the geographic location of his or her point of connectivity.
We may use internal and third party analytics tools, including Google Analytics.
Tracking Cookies Data
Cookies are files with small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifier.
USE OF DATA
We do not sell your personal data - such as your name and contact information - to third parties to use for their own marketing purposes.
Legal Suites,, Inc uses the collected data for various purposes:
We use various service providers, vendors and contractors (collectively, "Contractors") to assist us in providing our products and services to you. Our Contractors may have limited access to your Personally Identifiable Information in the course of providing their products or services to us, so that we in turn can provide our products and services to you. These Contractors may include vendors and suppliers that provide us with technology, services, and/or content related to the operation and maintenance of the Site. Access to your Personally Identifiable Information by these contractors is limited to the information reasonably necessary for the contractor to perform its limited function for us.
We may share aggregated of de-identified information with third parties for research, marketing, analytics, and other purposes, provided such information does not identify a particular individual.
LEGAL BASIS FOR PROCESSING PERSONAL DATA UNDER GENERAL DATA PROTECTION REGULATION (GDPR)
Legal Suites Inc., may process your Personal Data because:
RETENTION OF DATA
Legal Suites Inc., will also retain Usage Data for internal analysis purposes. Usage Data is generally retained for a shorter period of time, except when this data is used to strengthen the security or to improve the functionality of our Service, or we are legally obligated to retain this data for longer time periods.
TRANSFER OF DATA
Your information, including Personal Data, may be transferred to — and maintained on — computers located outside of your state, province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ than those from your jurisdiction.
If you are located outside Canada and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including Personal Data, to Canada and process it there.
DISCLOSURE OF DATA
Disclosure for Law Enforcement
Under certain circumstances, Legal Suites Inc., may be required to disclose your Personal Data if required to do so by law or in response to valid requests by public authorities (e.g. a court or a government agency).
Legal Suites Inc., may disclose your Personal Data in the good faith belief that such action is necessary to:
SECURITY OF DATA
The security of your data is important to us, but remember that no method of transmission over the Internet, or method of electronic storage is 100% secure. While we strive to use commercially acceptable means to protect your Personal Data, we cannot guarantee its absolute security.
"DO NOT TRACK" SIGNALS
We do not support Do Not Track ("DNT"). Do Not Track is a preference you can set in your web browser to inform websites that you do not want to be tracked.
You can enable or disable Do Not Track by visiting the Preferences or Settings page of your web browser.
YOUR DATA PROTECTINO RIGHTS UNDER GENERAL DATA PROTECTION REGULATION (GDPR)
If you are a resident of the European Economic Area (EEA), you have certain data protection rights. Legal Suites Inc., aims to take reasonable steps to allow you to correct, amend, delete, or limit the use of your Personal Data.
In certain circumstances, you have the following data protection rights:
The right of rectification. You have the right to have your information rectified if that information is inaccurate or incomplete.
The right to object. You have the right to object to our processing of your Personal Data.
The right of restriction. You have the right to request that we restrict the processing of your personal information.
The right to data portability. You have the right to be provided with a copy of the information we have on you in a structured, machine-readable and commonly used format.
The right to withdraw consent. You also have the right to withdraw your consent at any time where Legal Suites Inc., relied on your consent to process your personal information.
Please note that we may ask you to verify your identity before responding to such requests.
You have the right to complain to a Data Protection Authority about our collection and use of your Personal Data. For more information, please contact your local data protection authority in the European Economic Area (EEA).
We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate our Service ("Service Providers"), to provide the Service on our behalf, to perform Service-related services or to assist us in analyzing how our Service is used.
These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.
LINKS TO OTHER SITES
We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third party sites or services.
Our Service does not address anyone under the age of 13 ("Children").
AGREEMENT BETWEEN USER AND LEGALSUITES
The Legal Suites website is comprised of various web pages, web services, training, and web applications operated by Legal Suites Inc.
Legal Suites Inc., reserves the right to change the terms, conditions, and notices of the Legal Suites website, including but not limited to the charges associated with the use of Legal Suites website products and services.
LINKS TO THIRD PARTY SITES
The Legal Suites website may contain links to other websites (“linked sites”). The linked sites are not under the control of Legal Suites. Legal Suites is not responsible for the contents of any linked site, including without limitation any link contained in a linked site, or any changes or updates to a linked site. Legal Suites is not responsible for webcasting or any other form of transmission received from any linked site. Legal Suites is providing these links to you only as a convenience.
NO UNLAWFUL OR PROHIBITED USE
As a condition of your use of the services offered on the Legal Suites website, you warrant to Legal Suites that you will not use, the Legal Suites website for any purpose that is unlawful or prohibited by these terms, conditions, and notices. You may not obtain or attempt to obtain any materials or information through any means not intentionally made available or provided for through the Legal Suites website. You may not copy, create a derivative work of, modify, decompile, reverse engineer or extract webinar/download files or any portion of these, unless granted express permission in writing by Legal Suites.
EXCLUSION OF WARRANTIES
The Legal Suites Terms and Conditions will not exclude or limit Legal Suites warranty or liability for losses which may not be lawfully excluded or limited by applicable law. Legal Suites does not warrant or represent to you that: (1) any information obtained by you resulting of our services will be accurate or reliable; (2) your use of our services will be free from error, timely, secure or uninterrupted; (3) your use of our service will meet adhere to your requirements; (4) any information obtained through the use of our service is done at your own risk and discretion and you will be solely responsible for any damage to computer systems/devices or loss of data that may result; and, (5) any defects in functionality or operation of our services will be corrected.
The information, software, products and services that are included in or available through the Legal Suites website may include inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information provided. Legal Suites may make improvements to the website and/or services at any time. Legal Suites will not be liable to you for any: (1) direct, incidental, indirect, special consequential or exemplary damages which may be incurred by you, however caused and under any theory of liability – including, but not limited to, loss of profit (incurred directly or indirectly), loss of goodwill or business interruption, loss of data suffered, cost of procure of goods or services, other intangible loss; (2) loss or damage which may be incurred by you, including but limited to, loss or damage resulting from any (a) changes which Legal Suites may make to services, or any permanent or temporary cessation of provision of services or features within services, (b) deletion, corruption, failure to store, any content or communications data maintained or transmitted by or through the use of the services, (c) reliance placed by on completeness or existence of advertising, or as a result of any relationship or transaction between you and any advertiser or sponsor whose advertising appear on our portal/services, or via any linked site, (c) your failure to provide Legal Suites with accurate account information, and (d) your failure to keep your password or account details secure and confidential.
COLLECTION OF YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION
Legal Suites Inc., collects personally identifiable information, such as email address, name, company, work address or telephone number.
There is also information about your computer hardware and software that is automatically collected by Legal Suites. This information can include: your IP address, browser type, domain names, access times and referring website addresses. This information is used by Legal Suites for the operation of the service, to maintain quality of the service, and to provide general statistics regarding use of the Legal Suites website.
USE OF YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION
Legal Suites Inc., collects and uses your personal information to operate the Legal Suites website and deliver the services you have requested. Legal Suites also uses your personally identifiable information to inform you of other products or services available from Legal Suites and its affiliates. Legal Suites may also contact you via surveys to conduct research about your opinion of current services or of potential new services that may be offered.
Legal Suites does not sell, rent or lease its customer lists to third parties.
The Legal Suites website use “cookies” to help you personalize your online experience. A cookie is a text file that is placed on your hard disk by a web page server. Cookies cannot be used to run programs or deliver viruses to your computer. Cookies are uniquely assigned to you, and can only be read by a web server in the domain that issued the cookie to you.
One of the primary purposes of cookies is to provide a convenience feature to save you time. The purpose of a cookie is to tell the Web server that you have returned to a specific page. This simplifies the process of recording your personal information, such as billing addresses, shipping addresses, and so on. When you return to the Legal Suites website, the information you previously provided can be retrieved.
You have the ability to accept or decline cookies. Most web browsers automatically accept cookies, but you can usually modify your browser setting to decline cookies if you prefer.
USE OF WEBINAR SERVICES
Legal Suites Inc., offers live webinar and recorded webinar sessions/packages as part of their services. These services are licensed upon a per user basis. Upon purchasing licenses to either participate in or receive a recording of a live session, the user must purchase based on the number of participants accessing the content (live or recorded). At point of checkout, the purchaser will be required to indicate the number of users participating or accessing the webinar. Sharing of user license is strictly prohibited without the written consent of Legal Suites Inc.
CONDITIONS AND DISCLAIMERS RELATING TO ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS AND TRAINING SERVICES
You are advised and agree that the electronic documents and presentations, together with any support materials, are unofficial electronic versions, including but not limited to the following: statutes, regulations, guidelines, standards, codes and policies, as they relate to food labelling. The content herewithin, is referenced material from various government websites and documents. Legal Suites Inc., accepts no liability and expressly disclaims any responsibility for: any discrepancies that may arise between the original content and any electronic version (including any version transmitted/updated via the Internet), any non-current material contained in this electronic version of this standard that may have been revised but not included in a subsequent versions of our content.
SECURITY OF YOUR PERSONAL INFORMATION
Legal Suites secures your personal information from unauthorized access, use or disclosure. Legal Suites secures the personally identifiable information you provide on computer servers in a controlled, secure environment, protected from unauthorized access, use or disclosure. When personal information (such as a credit card number) is transmitted to other website, it is protected through the use of encryption, such as the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol.
CHANGES TO THIS STATEMENT
Legal Suites will occasionally update these Terms and Conditions to reflect company and customer feedback. Changes to the “Conditions of Use” will be updated on the website only and you agree to be solely responsible for reviewing these term of use before using any our Legal Suites website services. You also agree that if you use these services after the date on which changes to these Terms and Conditions have been made, you and Legal Suites will regard this as acceptance of the updated terms and conditions.
Copyright © 2018 Legal Suites Inc.,
936081 Airport Road, Mulmur, Ontario L9V 0L3 CANADA.
All rights reserved.
Legal Suites, Food Suite and/or other Legal Suites products referenced herein are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Legal Suites Inc. The names of actual companies and products mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, people and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, person, or event is intended or should be inferred.
REFUND POLICY FOR WEBINARS
Should Legal Suites Inc. have to cancel any live-on line webinar due to reasons like insufficient enrollment and other unavoidable factors, the attendee will receive a full refund for the type of package purchased by the registrant. Legal Suites Inc. will do its best to reschedule any cancelled live on-line webinars. Registrants will be notified within 24 hours in advance of the scheduled webinar, if a cancellation occurs.
Legal Suites Inc. will not be held responsible or held liable for any technical issues (including but not limited to server and internet connection/service disruptions) that may compromise the quality or delivery of the live on-line webinar, quality due to server and internet connections and/or subsequent recordings. We advise our customers to use a high speed internet connection to receive the best quality viewing and audio of the live on-line webinar. Legal Suites Inc. uses “Go-To-Webinar” as the live on-line webinar platform and recording service. Click on http://www.gotomeeting.com/online/meeting/online-meeting-support to review system requirements and other FAQs related to attending.
Step 1: Select Item from Store
If you are already registered on the Legal Suites® web site, log in first. If you are not a registered user you will be prompted to create an account later in the process. From the <Store> tab select a tab with the service item of your choice. In the example below, the <Webinar Support> tab was selected.
Step 2: Add a Store Item to Cart
From the available choices at the store, <Add> item to your cart. On the <Select Payment Mode> popup window, <Add to Cart>. Wait for the <Added to Cart!> confirmation to appear below the <Select Payment Mode>. This will confirm the addition of the item to the cart. This will disappear after a few seconds. If your cart is ready to purchase, enter <Go to Payment>.
Step 3: Enter Coupon Code
From the purchase form, enter the coupon code provided and <Apply>. The entry is case sensitive. If successful, a notice will be displayed that the coupon code is applied. The coupon may only be applied to the item it is registered for. Ensure you have selected the correct version of product. The coupon will cover all or part of the purchase price. Typically training support is provided at no cost to attendess of workshops and webinars. Such coupons issued for training support cover 100% of the posted cost.
Step 4: Complete the Purchase Form
Step 5: Complete USer Registration
Complete the <New User Account> subform. You must select a <Login Username> and <Password>. Complete the remaining part of the subform. If the coupon is for 100% of the purchase price, do not complete any additional account <Billing> and <Payment> subforms. If the coupon is for only a partial amount, then <Billing> and <Payment> subforms must be completed.
Step 6: Review Order & Proceed
From the <Confirmation> popup screen, verify that the total is what it should be. For example, if the coupon code covers 100% of the cost of the item, the total should be zero. If correct click <Proceed>. A confirmation screen will appear if successful. Click <OK>.
Step 7: Redirect and New Subscriptions
After completing Step 6, you will be redirected to your <My Subscriptions> <Dashboard> account screen. The store items that have been purchased will either appear under <My Subscriptions> add/or <Workshops><Support>. The example below may not be exactly the same as your subscribed services.
Users must be logged into the Legal Suites® web site in order to show and access their subscriptions. So when returning tothe site, please log in with the credentials you created. Users manage their own account.
Please explore the content made available to you. Your comments and suggestions are welcome. If you have any questions please contact the Legal Suite® web support team.
Updated: September 18, 2017
Code of Hammurabi...
is a collection of the laws and edicts of the Babylonian King Hammurabi, and the earliest legal code known in its entirety. A copy of the code, engraved on a block of stone, has been restored and is now in the Louvre in Paris. The divine origin of the written law is suggested by a bas-relief in which the king is depicted receiving the code from the sun god, Shamash. The code itself, composed of 28 paragraphs, seems to be a series of amendments to the common law of Babylonia, rather than a strict legal code. It begins with direction for legal procedure and the statement of penalties for unjust accusations, false testimony, and injustices done by judges; laws concerning property rights, loans, deposits, debts, domestic property, and family rights follow. The basis of criminal law is that of equal retaliation, comparable to the law of "an eye for an eye." The law offers protection to all classes of Babylonian society. It seeks to protect the weak and the poor, women, children, and slaves. It ends with an epilogue glorifying the mighty works of peace executed by Hammurabi.
Right - Stele of Hammurabi
The code of Hammurabi is engraved on the black basalt of this stele, which is 2.25 m (7 ft 5 in) high and was made in the first half of the 18th century BC. The top portion shown here depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. (Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York).
HAMMURABI'S CODE OF LAWS ...
When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the Lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, dominion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.
Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond compare, sublime patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu; who conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk, his Lord who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin made; who enriched Ur; the humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal; the white King, heard of Shamash, the mighty, who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with Shamash as his helper; the Lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who reunited the scattered inhabitants of Isin; who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting king of the city, brother of the god Zamama; who firmly founded the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory, redoubled the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsag-kalama; the grave of the enemy, whose help brought about the victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in E-shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of Borsippa, the Sublime; who is indefatigable for E-zida; the divine King of the city; the White, Wise; who broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the Lord to whom come scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the King who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of E-mach; the princely King of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom everlastingly great; the princely King of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit, who provided for Anunit in the temple of Dumash in the suburb of Agade; who recognizes the right, who rules by law; who gave back to the city of Ashur its protecting god; who let the name of Ishtar of Nineveh remain in E-mish-mish; the Sublime, who humbles himself before the great gods; successor of Sumula-il; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the royal scion of Eternity; the mighty monarch, the sun of Babylon, whose rays shed light over the land of Sumer and Akkad; the King, obeyed by the four quarters of the world; Beloved of Ninni, am I.
When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and righteousness in . . . , and brought about the well-being of the oppressed.
Code of Laws...
Note: The original index numbers appear beside the sequential indext number.
THE EPILOGUE LAW . . .
of justice which Hammurabi, the wise king, established. A righteous law, and pious statute did he teach the land. Hammurabi, the protecting king am I. I have not withdrawn myself from the men, whom Bel gave to me, the rule over whom Marduk gave to me, I was not negligent, but I made them a peaceful abiding-place. I expounded all great difficulties, I made the light shine upon them. With the mighty weapons which Zamama and Ishtar entrusted to me, with the keen vision with which Ea endowed me, with the wisdom that Marduk gave me, I have uprooted the enemy above and below (in north and south), subdued the earth, brought prosperity to the land, guaranteed security to the inhabitants in their homes; a disturber was not permitted. The great gods have called me, I am the salvation-bearing shepherd, whose staff is straight, the good shadow that is spread over my city; on my breast I cherish the inhabitants of the land of Sumer and Akkad; in my shelter I have let them repose in peace; in my deep wisdom have I enclosed them. That the strong might not injure the weak, in order to protect the widows and orphans, I have in Babylon the city where Anu and Bel raise high their head, in E-Sagil, the Temple, whose foundations stand firm as heaven and earth, in order to bespeak justice in the land, to settle all disputes, and heal all injuries, set up these my precious words, written upon my memorial stone, before the image of me, as King of righteousness. The king who ruleth among the kings of the cities am I. My words are well considered; there is no wisdom like unto mine. By the command of Shamash, the great judge of heaven and earth, let righteousness go forth in the land: by the order of Marduk, my Lord, let no destruction befall my monument. In E-Sagil, which I love, let my name be ever repeated; let the oppressed, who has a case at law, come and stand before this my image as king of righteousness; let him read the inscription, and understand my precious words: the inscription will explain his case to him; he will find out what is just, and his heart will be glad, so that he will say: "Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Marduk in reverence, who has achieved conquest for Marduk over the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his Lord, who has bestowed benefits for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land." When he reads the record, let him pray with full heart to Marduk, my Lord, and Zarpanit, my lady; and then shall the protecting deities and the gods, who frequent E-Sagil, graciously grant the desires daily presented before Marduk, my Lord, and Zarpanit, my lady. In future time, through all coming generations, let the king, who may be in the land, observe the words of righteousness which I have written on my monument; let him not alter the law of the land which I have given, the edicts which I have enacted; my monument let him not mar. If such a ruler have wisdom, and be able to keep his land in order, he shall observe the words which I have written in this inscription; the rule, statute, and law of the land which I have given; the decisions which I have made will this inscription show him; let him rule his subjects accordingly, speak justice to them, give right decisions, root out the miscreants and criminals from this land, and grant prosperity to his subjects. Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, on whom Shamash has conferred right (or law) am I. My words are well considered; my deeds are not equaled; to bring low those that were high; to humble the proud, to expel insolence. If a succeeding ruler considers my words, which I have written in this my inscription, if he do not annul my law, nor corrupt my words, nor change my monument, then may Shamash lengthen that king's reign, as he has that of me, the king of righteousness, that he may reign in righteousness over his subjects. If this ruler do not esteem my words, which I have written in my inscription, if he despise my curses, and fear not the curse of God, if he destroy the law which I have given, corrupt my words, change my monument, efface my name, write his name there, or on account of the curses commission another so to do, that man, whether king or ruler, patesi, or commoner, no matter what he be, may the great God (Anu), the Father of the gods, who has ordered my rule, withdraw from him the glory of royalty, break his scepter, curse his destiny. May Bel, the Lord, who fixeth destiny, whose command can not be altered, who has made my kingdom great, order a rebellion which his hand can not control; may he let the wind of the overthrow of his habitation blow, may he ordain the years of his rule in groaning, years of scarcity, years of famine, darkness without light, death with seeing eyes be fated to him; may he (Bel) order with his potent mouth the destruction of his city, the dispersion of his subjects, the cutting off of his rule, the removal of his name and memory from the land. May Belit, the great Mother, whose command is potent in E-Kur (the Babylonian Olympus), the Mistress, who harkens graciously to my petitions, in the seat of judgment and decision (where Bel fixes destiny), turn his affairs evil before Bel, and put the devastation of his land, the destruction of his subjects, the pouring out of his life like water into the mouth of King Bel. May Ea, the great ruler, whose fated decrees come to pass, the thinker of the gods, the omniscient, who maketh long the days of my life, withdraw understanding and wisdom from him, lead him to forgetfulness, shut up his rivers at their sources, and not allow corn or sustenance for man to grow in his land. May Shamash, the great Judge of heaven and earth, who supporteth all means of livelihood, Lord of life-courage, shatter his dominion, annul his law, destroy his way, make vain the march of his troops, send him in his visions forecasts of the uprooting of the foundations of his throne and of the destruction of his land. May the condemnation of Shamash overtake him forthwith; may he be deprived of water above among the living, and his spirit below in the earth. May Sin (the Moon-god), the Lord of Heaven, the divine father, whose crescent gives light among the gods, take away the crown and regal throne from him; may he put upon him heavy guilt, great decay, that nothing may be lower than he. May he destine him as fated, days, months and years of dominion filled with sighing and tears, increase of the burden of dominion, a life that is like unto death. May Adad, the Lord of fruitfulness, ruler of heaven and earth, my helper, withhold from him rain from heaven, and the flood of water from the springs, destroying his land by famine and want; may he rage mightily over his city, and make his land into flood-hills (heaps of ruined cities). May Zamama, the great warrior, the first-born son of E-Kur, who goeth at my right hand, shatter his weapons on the field of battle, turn day into night for him, and let his foe triumph over him. May Ishtar, the goddess of fighting and war, who unfetters my weapons, my gracious protecting spirit, who loveth my dominion, curse his kingdom in her angry heart; in her great wrath, change his grace into evil, and shatter his weapons on the place of fighting and war. May she create disorder and sedition for him, strike down his warriors, that the earth may drink their blood, and throw down the piles of corpses of his warriors on the field; may she not grant him a life of mercy, deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and imprison him in the land of his enemies. May Nergal, the might among the gods, whose contest is irresistible, who grants me victory, in his great might burn up his subjects like a slender reedstalk, cut off his limbs with his mighty weapons, and shatter him like an earthen image. May Nin-tu, the sublime mistress of the lands, the fruitful mother, deny him a son, vouchsafe him no name, give him no successor among men. May Nin-karak, the daughter of Anu, who adjudges grace to me, cause to come upon his members in E-kur high fever, severe wounds, that can not be healed, whose nature the physician does not understand, which he can not treat with dressing, which, like the bite of death, can not be removed, until they have sapped away his life.
May he lament the loss of his life-power, and may the great gods of heaven and earth, the Anunaki, altogether inflict a curse and evil upon the confines of the temple, the walls of this E-barra (the Sun temple of Sippara), upon his dominion, his land, his warriors, his subjects, and his troops. May Bel curse him with the potent curses of his mouth that can not be altered, and may they come upon him forthwith.
2500 BC The Code of Hammurabi . . .
Translated by L. W. King With commentary from Charles F. Horne, Ph.D. (1915) and The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910 by the Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A. Litt.D. (circa 1780 B.C.) Translated by L. W. King